GC-MS and Antioxidant Capacity Analysis in Propanol Extract of Carthamus Tinctorious L

Sri Indriati, Muhammad Yusuf, Riskayanti Riskayanti, Nur Amaliah, Mahyati Latief, Rahmiah Sjafruddin, Nur Fitriani Usdyana Attahmid


Safflower, were extracted using propanol solvent at different time intervals: 10, 20, and 30 min at a constant temperature of 40°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were tetrapentacontane, tetracontane, triacontanol, gamma sitosterol, myristic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and lauric acid. However, some levels of palmidrol, beta-amyrin, cubenol, and tocopherol were also found in safflower extracts. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 10–30 min time of extraction. The 30 min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in safflower extracts. Thus, 30 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from Safflower using propanol solvent.


Antioxidants; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Polyphenols; Propanol; Safflower

Full Text:



T. Kanehira et al., "A novel and potent biological antioxidant, Kinobeon A, from cell culture of safflower," Life Sci., vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 87–97, 2003, doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2003.06.033.

Hui Li Zhang, A. Nagatsu, and J. Sakakibara, "Novel antioxidants from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) oil cake," Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 44, no. 4. pp. 874–876, 1996, doi: 10.1248/cpb.44.874.

H. L. Zhang, A. Nagatsu, T. Watanabe, J. Sakakibara, and H. Okuyama, "Antioxidative compounds isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) oil cake," Chem. Pharm. Bull., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1910–1914, 1997, doi: 10.1248/cpb.45.1910.

Utami Yuri Pratiwi, Aliyah and Rahmawati Syukur, “Uji Efek Imunostimulan Kombinasi Ekstrak Mahkota Bunga Kasumba Turate ( Carthamus tinctorius L .) Dan Ekstrak Umbi Bawang Dayak ( Eleutherine palmifolia ) pada mencit ( Mus musculus ),” JST Kesehat., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 179–184, 2016.

J. L. Mau, H. C. Lin, and S. F. Song, "Antioxidant properties of several specialty mushrooms," Food Res. Int., 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0963-9969(01)00150-8.

U. A. Fitriani Nur, M. Yusuf, Pirman, Syahriati, and S. Rahmiah, "Physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory properties of chocolate spread fortified with jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) flour," Food Res., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 2147–2155, 2020, doi: 10.26656/fr.2017.4(6).262.

U. Nur Fitriani, M. Yusuf, and F. S. Ilyas, "Spray Drying of Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Powder: Effect of Shelf Life on Physicochemical Properties and Cyanidin 3-O—glucoside," IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 755, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/755/1/012002.

L. P. Sun, F. F. Shi, W. W. Zhang, Z. H. Zhang, and K. Wang, "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) honey extract," Foods, vol. 9, no. 1039, pp. 1–16, 2020, doi: 10.3390/foods9081039.

M. Esmaeelian, M. Jahani, J. Feizy, and S. Einafshar, "Effects of Ultrasound-Assisted and Direct Solvent Extraction Methods on the Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Corm Extract," Food Anal. Methods, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s12161-020-01855-8.

T. Bacchetti, C. Morresi, L. Bellachioma, and G. Ferretti, "Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of Carthamus tinctorius, hydroxy safflor yellow A, and safflor yellow A," Antioxidants, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1–10, 2020, doi: 10.3390/antiox9020119.

J. Deng et al., "Comparative evaluation of maceration and ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from fresh olives," Ultrason. Sonochem., 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2017.01.023.

M. Yusuf, N. F. U. Atthamid, S. Indriati, R. Saleh, M. Latief, and A. Rifai, "Optimization ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compound and antibacterial potential from sea urchin (diadema setosum)," Curr. Res. Nutr. Food Sci., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 556–569, 2020, doi: 10.12944/CRNFSJ.8.2.22.

A. Altemimi, R. Choudhary, D. G. Watson, and D. A. Lightfoot, "Effects of ultrasonic treatments on the polyphenol and antioxidant content of spinach extracts," Ultrason. Sonochem., 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.10.023.

S. U. Kadam, B. K. Tiwari, and C. P. O'Donnell, "Application of novel extraction technologies for bioactives from marine algae," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2013, doi: 10.1021/jf400819p.

M. Yusuf, Pirman, U. A. Nur Fitriani, I. Amri, and A. I. Juwita, "Identifications of Polyphenols and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Multi herbal Formulation: Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cocoa), Buni (Antidesma bunius L. Spreng) and Cinnamons (Cinnamomum cassia)," in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2021, vol. 1783, no. 1, pp. 1–9, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1783/1/012004.

M. Ahmad, W. N. Baba, A. Gani, T. A. Wani, A. Gani, and F. A. Masoodi, "Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis), using GC/MS," Cogent Food Agric., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2015, doi: 10.1080/23311932.2015.1106387.

C. E. Ramsden et al., "Lowering dietary linoleic acid reduces bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites in humans," Prostaglandins, Leukot. Essent. Fat. Acids, vol. 87, no. 4–5, pp. 135–141, Oct. 2012, doi: 10.1016/J.PLEFA.2012.08.004.

F. P. Casuga, A. L. Castillo, and M. J. A. T. Corpuz, "GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in different extracts of an endemic plant Broussonetia luzonica (Blanco) (Moraceae) leaves," Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 957–961, Nov. 2016, doi: 10.1016/J.APJTB.2016.08.015.

M. N. Asghar, J. Akhtar, M. Shafiq, I. Nadeem, M. Ashfaq, and S. Shahid, "GC-MS and antioxidant capacity analyses of cowpea seeds oils," Nutr. Food Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 116–126, 2013, doi: 10.1108/00346651311313283.

D. Rath, S. K. Panigrahi, D. M. Kar, and L. Maharana, "Identification of bioactive constituents from different fractions of stems of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. using GC-MS," Nat. Prod. Res., vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 1977–1981, 2018, doi: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1356837.

K. Liu, P. G. Rossi, B. Ferrari, L. Berti, J. Casanova, and F. Tomi, "Composition, irregular terpenoids, chemical variability and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Santolina corsica Jordan et Fourr," Phytochemistry, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 1698–1705, Jun. 2007, doi: 10.1016/J.PHYTOCHEM.2007.04.027.

D. C. Obasi and V. N. Ogugua, "GC-MS analysis, pH and antioxidant effect of Ruzu herbal bitters on alloxan-induced diabetic rats," Biochem. Biophys. Reports, vol. 27, p. 101057, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.1016/J.BBREP.2021.101057.

N. Kalogeropoulos, A. Chiou, V. Pyriochou, A. Peristeraki, and V. T. Karathanos, "Bioactive phytochemicals in industrial tomatoes and their processing byproducts," LWT - Food Sci. Technol., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 213–216, Dec. 2012, doi: 10.1016/J.LWT.2011.12.036.

R. Kawuri and I. B. G. Darmayasa, "Bioactive compound of Streptomyces capoamus as biocontrol of Bacterial Wilt Disease on Banana Plant," in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2019, vol. 347, no. 1, pp. 1–9, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/347/1/012054.

A. O. Nogueira, Y. I. S. Oliveira, B. L. Adjafre, M. E. A. de Moraes, and G. F. Aragão, "Pharmacological effects of the isomeric mixture of alpha and beta amyrin from Protium heptaphyllum: a literature review," Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 33, no. 1. pp. 4–12, 2019, doi: 10.1111/fcp.12402.

G. Eswaraiah, K. A. Peele, S. Krupanidhi, R. B. Kumar, and T. C. Venkateswarulu, "Identification of bioactive compounds in leaf extract of Avicennia alba by GC-MS analysis and evaluation of its in-vitro anti-cancer potential against MCF7 and HeLa cell lines," J. King Saud Univ. - Sci., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 740–744, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1016/J.JKSUS.2018.12.010.

S. J. Uddin, D. Grice, and E. Tiralongo, "Pharmaceutical Biology Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of patriscabratine, tetracosane and various flavonoids isolated from the Bangladeshi medicinal plant Acrostichum aureum," Pharm. Biol., vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1276–1280, 2012, doi: 10.3109/13880209.2012.673628.

M. Ye et al., "Leonurusoleanolides E-J, minor spirocyclic triterpenoids from leonurus japonicus fruits," J. Nat. Prod., vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 178–182, 2014, doi: 10.1021/np400838a.

C. Wang et al., "Investigation on pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of 1-triacontanol in rats by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS)," Xenobiotica, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 71–78, 2015, doi: 10.3109/00498254.2014.943334.

K. Shunmugapriya, P. Vennila, S. Thirukkumar, and M. Ilamaran, "Identification of bioactive components in Moringa oleifera fruit by GC-MS," J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 748–751, 2017.

A. El Kabouss, Z. Charrouf, M. Faid, F. X. Garneau, and G. Collin, "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the leaf essential oil of Argania spinosa L. Skeels," J. Essent. Oil Res., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 147–149, 2002, doi: 10.1080/10412905.2002.9699801.

L. Zhang et al., "Simultaneous determination of tocopherols, carotenoids and phytosterols in edible vegetable oil by ultrasound-assisted saponification, LLE and LC-MS/MS," Food Chem., vol. 289, pp. 313–319, Aug. 2019, doi: 10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2019.03.067.

P. Molyneux, "The Use of the Stable Free Radical Diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) for Estimating Antioxidant Activity," Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 211–219, 2004, doi: 10.1287/isre.6.2.144.

M. Y. Shon, T. H. Kim, and N. J. Sung, "Antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity of Phellinus baumii (Phellinus of Hymenochaetaceae) extracts," Food Chem., vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 593–597, 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00015-3.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31963/intek.v8i1.2801


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Publisher by:

Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang
Kampus 1 Gedung Administrasi Lantai II
Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan KM.10 Tamalanrea
Makassar 90245
E-mail: intek@poliupg.ac.id

INTEK Indexed by:


 Member of :

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 View My Stats